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560
THE IRON INDUSTRY.
Etienne. Notwithstanding this array of names familiar to metallurgists, the output of this part of France may be briefly passed over. It is of small amount and the existing works have become specialized, making high-grade products for a limited market, as, for instance, armor plate, guns and tool steels. The fuel supply is not good, the blast-furnace coke of St. Etienne in the Loire basin containing an average of 14 per cent, of ash. The supply from
TABLE XXV-D. Steel Works in the Center of France.
Note: Those'marked (B) have Bessemer Converters.
Province.	Companies.	Location.
Allier ...........	Compagnie des Forges de Chatillon.   Commentry	
		Montlucon and
Isere ............	MM. Ch. Pinat et Cie, Maitres de Forges ..........	Commentry Allevard
Loire ............	Oompagnie des Forges et Aci6ries de la Marine et	
	des Chemins de i&s .............................	Saint-Chamond
	Compagnie des Fonderies, Forges et Acie'ries de Saint-Etienne ................................ .....	et Assailly Saint-Etienne
	MM. Claudinon et Cie, Maitres de Forges .........	Le Chambon-Feu-
	Socie'te anonyme des Acie'ries et Forges de Fir-miny ............................................	gerolles FivmiTiy
Nievre ..........	MM. Jacob Holtzer et Cie, Maitres des Forges . , . Soci6te anonyme de Comnientry-FouTchambault	Unieux
	et Decazevjlle ....................................	Imphy
Saone-et-Loire. .	MM. Schneider et Cie, Maitres de Forges.   (B) . . MM. Campionnet et Oie .............................	Le Creusot Gueugnon
		
Allier, which goes to Commentry, Montlugon, etc., is no better; while much of the fuel for the Creusot works comes from the Burgundy basin in Saone et Loire, and for the making of coke must be mixed with one-third of the coal from St. Etienne. Ore is wanting, over one-third the supply being brought from Spain, and there seems to be no future development possible as far as international metallurgy is concerned. The whole district in 1899 made only 4000 tons of rails, which was but a little more than one per cent, of the total output of steel. The Creusot works turn out a very fair product, but much of their pig-iron is brought from more favored districts. This plant makes almost all the few rails made in this part of the country, and quite a little material for ships, and claims attention on account of its miscellaneous business in machinery, ordnance and structural work; but there is little danger that the establishments of central France will make many conquests in international